Electric current is a flow of charged particles (electrons or ions) across a conductor or space. It is the rate of charge flow through a conducting medium. The mathematical symbol for current is “I” or I The current unit is ampere. A represents this.The charge flow rate with time can be stated mathematically as,

The conductive media determines current flow. **As in:**

- Electrons move current in a conductor.
- Electrons or holes move current in semiconductors.
- Ions and electrons move current in an electrolyte.
- Ions and electrons flow current in plasma, an ionized gas.

**W**hen a voltage difference is applied between two sites in a conductive material, a current flows from higher to lower potential. The higher the voltage or potential difference, the more current flow.

A circuit cannot flow if two sites have the same potential. A current’s magnitude is determined by the voltage between two locations. Thus, current is the result of voltage.

Electromagnetic fields are employed in inductors, transformers, generators, and motors. In electric conductors, current creates resistive or joule heating, which produces light.

Electromagnetic waves are created by changing an electric current.

AC vs DC currentCpower)

Electric current is divided into two types: alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) (DC).

**AC Power**

Alternating current is the passage of electric charge in a reversing direction (AC). AC is also called “AC Current”. Technically, this is saying the same thing twice.

Periodically, an alternating current reverses direction.

The alternating current starts at zero, rises to a maximum, falls back to zero, then reverses direction and rises to a maximum in the other direction.

A sinusoidal, triangular, square, or sawtooth alternating current waveform.

It doesn’t matter what waveform it is, as long as it repeats.

However, in most electrical circuits, alternating current is a sine wave. The graphic below depicts an alternating current sine wave.

AC power is commonly used in industry and homes

**DC Power**

Direct current is a charge flow in only one direction (DC). DC is also called “DC Current”. Although this is technically saying the same thing twice.

DC is also known as unidirectional current due to its one-way flow. The graphic below depicts a direct current waveform.

Batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, thermocouples, and commutator-type generators can all produce DC. A rectifier converts alternating current to direct current.

Low-voltage DC power is commonly employed. Electrical circuits need DC power.

How is Electric Current Measured?

Current is measured in amperes. The ampere, or amp, is the basic SI unit of electric current. Andrew Marie Ampere, a famous physicist, inspired the unit ampere.

In the SI system, 1 ampere is the flow of one coulomb of charge per second between two places. Thus,

As a result, current is measured in coulombs per second, abbreviated as C/S.

**Formula nowFor example,**

Resistance (Ohm’s Law)

Voltage-Power-Current Relationship

the three c’s: current,

The graph below summarizes them.

Ohm’s Law is now in effect in Formula 1.

In accordance with **Ohm’s law**,

Formula 2 is now in use (Power and Voltage)

The power transferred is equal to the product of the supply voltage and the current of electricity.

As a result, we have current equal to the product of power divided by voltage. Mathematically,

Where A is an abbreviation for amperes or amps (the units for electric current).

Formula 3 is now in use (Power and Resistance, Ohmic Loss, Resistive Heating)

We are well aware of this.

P=VI

When we plug in V = I * R into the previous equation, we get the following result:

As a result, the current is equal to the square root of the relationship between power and resistance. Mathematically,

**Electron Flow versus. Current**

There is a little misunderstanding between current and electron flow. Let us try to distinguish between the two.

Mobile or free electrons carry charge across conductors. The law that positive test charges are pushed is the direction of an electric field within a circuit. Thus, electrons travel in the opposite direction to the electric field.

Charged particles move through a circuit when a voltage or potential difference is applied across a conductor.

These charged particles pass from a positive terminal to a negative terminal of the battery via an external circuit.

Negatively charged particles (electrons) are free to move in a metallic conductor. The charge flow in semiconductors can be positive or negative.

In an electric circuit, a flow of positive and negative charge carriers has the same effect. Since current flow is caused by positive or negative charges, or both, a standard for current direction is required.

Positive charge carriers flow from higher potential to lower potential in the direction of conventional current. Positive charge carriers (positive charge carriers) flow in the opposite direction of ordinary current flow (negative charge carriers). As illustrated in the graphic below, conventional current and electron flow flow in opposite directions.

Conventional Current: Conventional current is defined as the passage of positive charge carriers from a positive terminal to a negative terminal of the battery.

Electron Current: The flow of electrons is referred to as electron current in science. It is known as electron flow to refer to the movement of negative charge carriers (i.e., electrons) from a negative terminal of a battery to a positive terminal of a battery. The flow of electrons is the polar opposite of the flow of conventional electricity.

**What Is the Best Way to Measure Current?**Current measurement is a critical parameter in any electrical or electronic circuit that must be monitored and measured accurately.

Electric current can be measured using an ammeter, which is a special device. Ammeter must be connected in series with the circuit whose current is being measured in order to accurately measure it.

The ammeter is used to measure the current flowing through the resistor, as seen in the following figure.

A galvanometer is another instrument that can be used to measure electric current. The galvanometer provides information on both the direction and the amplitude of the electric current flowing through it.

Measurement of current is possible by measuring the magnetic field associated with the current without having to interrupt the circuit. There are a variety of instruments that may be used to measure current without interrupting the circuit.

Hall effect current sensor transducers are used in a variety of applications.

The current transformer (CT) is a device that converts current into voltage (Only measure AC)

Meter with a clamp on it

Shunt resistors are resistors that are used in series with another resistor.

Magneto-resistive field sensors are a type of sensor that detects magnetic fields.

**In order to measure electric current, what do you need an electromagnet for?**

A galvanometer is a measuring instrument that measures electric current by using an electromagnet as its source.

It measures the electric current in terms of the tangent of the deflection angle, which is an absolute measurement in the case of a galvanometer.

A galvanometer can measure the electric current directly, but doing so requires interrupting the circuit, which can be inconvenient in some situations, as seen in the example below.

**What is the mechanism through which an electric current produces a magnetic force?**

Due to the fact that current is nothing more than the movement of charges, a current-carrying conductor put in a magnetic field will experience a magnetic field force.

Consider the case of a current-carrying conductor with current flowing through it, as seen in the image below (a). According to Fleming’s right-hand rule, this current will generate a magnetic field that will rotate in a counterclockwise direction.

**In order to measure electric current, what instrument should be used.**

Electric current can be measured using an ammeter, which is a special device. The ammeter must be wired in series with the circuit whose current is to be measured in order to function properly.

Electric current is measured with a variety of other equipment as well.

Hall effect current sensor transducers are used in a variety of applications.

The current transformer (CT) is a device that converts current into voltage (Only measure AC)

Meter with a clamp on it

Shunt resistors are resistors that are used in series with another resistor.

Magnetoresistive field sensors are a type of sensor that detects magnetic fields.